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Our World in DataOur World in DataArticles by topicLatestAboutDonateAll chartsSustainable Development Goals TrackerCOVID-19 vaccinations, cases, excess mortality, and much moreExplore our COVID-19 dataResearch and data to make progress against the world’s largest problemsScroll to all our articles3126 charts across 297 topicsAll free: open access and open sourceTrusted in research and mediaFind out how our work is used by journalists and researchersUsed in teachingFind out how our work is used in teachingOur latest workWe just published our IPCC Climate Scenario ExplorerExplore the assumptions of global shared socioeconomic pathways used in IPCC scenarios.By Hannah Ritchie — April 13, 2022We just did our annual update of global electricity dataExplore how electricity sources changed across the world in 2021.By Pablo Rosado and Hannah Ritchie — April 11, 2022War in UkraineExplore our data and resources which are relevant context for the war in Ukraine.By Hannah Ritchie, Edouard Mathieu and Max Roser — April 07, 2022At what age do people experience depression for the first time?People are being diagnosed with depression at an earlier age than in the past because of increased openness to mental health disorders and improved diagnostic guidelines.By Saloni Dattani — April 07, 2022Increasing agricultural productivity across Sub-Saharan Africa is one of the most important problems this centuryAgricultural productivity across Sub-Saharan Africa needs to improve to reduce hunger, poverty, and the destruction of biodiversity.By Hannah Ritchie — April 04, 2022How could the war in Ukraine impact global food supplies?Both Ukraine and Russia are some of the world’s largest food exporters. How could global food be impacted?By Hannah Ritchie — March 24, 2022See all postsSubscribe to our newsletterReceive our latest work by email.Immediate updatesReceive an email from us whenever we publish new work (maximum 1 per day).Biweekly digestReceive an overview of our recent work and highlights of our other work every two weeks.By subscribing you are agreeing to the terms of our privacy policy.SubscribeFollow usTwitterFacebookInstagramRSS FeedSustainable Development Goals TrackerIs the world on track to reach the Sustainable Development Goals?Teaching HubSlides, research, and visualizations for teaching and learning about global developmentAll our articles on global problems and global changesDemographic ChangePopulation changeThe world population increased from 1 billion in 1800 to 7.9 billion today.Growth slowed from 2.2% per year 50 years ago to 1.0% per year today.When and why did the world population grow? And how does rapid population growth come to an end?World Population GrowthThe UN projects that the global population will be 10.9 billion by 2100.The population growth rate is then expected to be close to zero.What can we expect for the future? What determines how large or small the world population will be?Future Population GrowthThe global median age increased from 22 years in 1970 to 31 years.25% of the world are younger than 14 years. 9% are older than 65.What is the age profile of populations around the world? How did it change and what will the age structure of populations look like in the future?Age StructureIn some countries gender discrimination leads to skewed sex ratios at birth.How does the number of men and women differ between countries? And why?Gender RatioLife and deathThe global average life expectancy is 73 years.The global inequality is large.When and why did the average age at which people die increase and how can we make further progress against early death?Life Expectancy5.2 million children younger than five die every year.The global child mortality rate is 3.8%.Why are children dying and what can be done to prevent it?Child and Infant MortalityThe global average fertility rate is 2.4 children per woman.In the last 50 years this rate has halved.How does the number of children vary across the world and over time? What is driving the rapid global change?Fertility RateDistribution of the World Population56% of the world population live in urban areas.In 1960 it was 34%.The world population is moving to cities. Why is urbanization happening and what are the consequences?UrbanizationHealthAround one-in-three children globally suffer from lead poisoning.Lead pollution is a widespread problem that receives little attention. What is the scale of the problem and how can we tackle it?Lead PollutionThe global average life expectancy is 73 years.The global inequality is large.When and why did the average age at which people die increase and how can we make further progress against early death?Life Expectancy5.2 million children younger than five die every year.The global child mortality rate is 3.8%.Why are children dying and what can be done to prevent it?Child and Infant Mortality295,000 women die from pregnancy-related causes every year.What could be more tragic than a mother losing her life in the moment that she is giving birth to her newborn? Why are mothers dying and what can be done to prevent these deaths?Maternal Mortality57 million people die every year.What do they die from?How did the causes of death change over time?Causes of deathThe global burden of disease is large.Per year 2.5 billion healthy life years are lost due to diseases, accidents, and premature deathsHow is the burden of disease distributed and how did it change over time?Burden of Disease10.1 million people die from cancer every year.51% are younger than 70 years old.Cancers are one of the leading causes of death globally. Are we making progress against cancer?CancerAn estimated 970 million people have a mental health disorder.We provide a global overview of the prevalence of depression, anxiety disorders, bipolar disorder, eating disorders, and schizophrenia.Mental Health760,000 die from suicide per year.59% are younger than 50 years old.Every suicide is a tragedy. But they can be prevented.SuicideHealth risks6.7 million people die prematurely from air pollution each year.Our overview on both indoor and outdoor air pollution.Air Pollution4.5 million people die prematurely from outdoor air pollution every year.44% are younger than 70 years old.Outdoor air pollution is one of the world’s largest health and environmental problems.Outdoor Air Pollution2.3 million people die prematurely from indoor air pollution every year.58% are younger than 70 years old.Indoor air pollution – caused by the burning of firewood, crop waste, and dung for cooking and heating – is a major health risk of the world’s poorest.Indoor Air Pollution13% of adults are obese, globally.Obesity is responsible for 5 million premature deaths every year.When did obesity increase? How do rates vary across the world? What is the health impact?Obesity7.7 million people die prematurely from smoking every year.46% are younger than 70 years old.Tobacco smoking is one of the world’s largest health problems today.Smoking2.4 million people die prematurely from alcohol consumption every year.71% are younger than 70 years old.Who consumes the most alcohol? How has consumption changed over time? And what are the health impacts?Alcohol Consumption11.8 million people die prematurely from drug use every year.This includes tobacco smoking, alcohol consumption and illicit drug use.Drug use – which includes smoking, alcohol, and illicit drug use is one of the world’s largest health problems today. Drug Use620,000 people die prematurely from illicit drug use every year.45% are younger than 50 years old.How common is the use and addiction to opioids, cocaine, amphetamines and cannabis? What is the impact?Opioids, cocaine, cannabis and illicit drugsInfectious diseasesCOVID-19 developed into a global pandemic.Country-by-country data and research on the pandemic. Updated daily.Coronavirus Pandemic (COVID-19)860,000 people die from HIV/AIDS each year.77% are younger than 50 years old.A global epidemic and the leading cause of death in some countries.HIV / AIDS630,000 people die from malaria every year.55% are children younger than 5 years old.The deadly disease transmitted by mosquitoes is one of the leading causes of death in children. How did we eliminate the disease in some world regions and how can we continue progress against malaria?MalariaHumanity has already eradicated one severe disease.Which ones could we eradicate in our lifetimes and how?Eradication of Diseases1.5 million people die from diarrheal diseases every year.One-third are children under five years old.Diarrheal diseases are one of the leading cause of child deaths while they are largely preventable.How can we continue to make progress against these diseases?Diarrheal diseasesIn the past smallpox killed millions every year.Humanity eradicated this infectious disease globally. How was this possible?SmallpoxOne generation ago polio paralyzed hundreds of thousands of children every year.Now the world can possibly eradicate it: polio remains endemic in only 2 countries.Polio2.5 million people die from pneumonia every year.One-fourth are children younger than five years old.Pneumonia is the leading cause of death for children younger than 5 years.Pneumonia35,000 people die from Tetanus every year.Half are children under the age of five.Tetanus is a bacterial infection that leads to painful muscle contractions and possibly death.TetanusHealth institutions and interventionsHealthcare funding is essential for good health.Healthcare is key to make progress against poor health. How is it financed?Financing Healthcare14% of children in the world do not receive basic vaccines.Vaccines are key in making progress against infectious diseases and save millions of lives every year.VaccinationFood and AgricultureMost of the world's farmers are smallholders, with less than two hectares of landHow does farm size vary across the world? How much of farmland is held by smallholders?Farm SizeNutrition9% of the world population – 660 million people – are undernourished.22% of children younger than five are ‘stunted’.What are the consequences of undernourishment and how can we make progress against hunger and undernourishment?Hunger and UndernourishmentAround 130 million people died in famines during the last 150 years.This estimate is based on our historical reconstructions.In many parts of the world famines have been common in the past. What causes famines? How can famines be averted?Famines2,861 kcal per day is the global average food supply per person.There are large inequalities in food supply across countries.How had the availability of food changed over time? How does food supply vary across the world today?Food SupplyThe average young adult is about 5% taller today than 100 years ago.Human height gives us an indicator of changes in health and nutrition in the past.The average height of a population can inform us about the nutrition and living conditions of populations in the past for which we have little other data.Human HeightAn estimated 2 billion people are deficient in essential micronutrients.Food is not only a source of energy and protein, but also micronutrients – vitamins and minerals – which are essential to good health.Who is most affected by the ‘hidden hunger’ of micronutrient deficiency?Micronutrient DeficiencyA diverse diet is essential for good nutrition.There are large inequalities in dietary diversity between countries.What do people across the world eat?Diet CompositionsThree billion people cannot afford a healthy diet.Food prices are important for both consumers and farmers.Food needs to be affordable for people, and at the same it is a key source of income for one-quarter of the world’s labor force.Food Prices13% of adults are obese, globally.Obesity is responsible for 5 million premature deaths every year.When did obesity increase? How do rates vary across the world? What is the health impact?Obesity2.4 million people die prematurely from alcohol consumption every year.71% are younger than 70 years old.Who consumes the most alcohol? How has consumption changed over time? And what are the health impacts?Alcohol ConsumptionFood ProductionThe world produces more than enough food for everyone.But it's unequally distributed across the world.How much food do countries produce across the world?Agricultural Production26% of global greenhouse gas emissions come from food production.50% of the world's habitable land is used for agriculture.What are the environmental impacts of food production? How do we reduce the impacts of agriculture on the environment?Environmental Impacts of Food ProductionGlobal average cereal yield is 4 tonnes per hectare.But in many regions yields are much lower.Increasing the production of crops per area of land is of key importance for food security, living standards, and decreasing humanity’s impact on the environment.Crop Yields72 billion animals are slaughtered every year for meat production.Meat is an important source of nutrition for people around the world. How quickly is demand growing? And what are the implications for animal welfare and the earth’s environment?Meat and Dairy ProductionAgricultural inputs27% of the world’s labor force is employed in agriculture.Once the majority of human labor was dedicated to food production. When and how did this change? What is the global distribution of agricultural labor today?Employment in Agriculture50% of the world’s habitable land is used for agricultureHow is humanity using the Earth’s land? And how can we decrease our land use so that more land is left for wildlife?Land UseThe world produces more than 200 million tonnes of fertilizer each year.Fertilizers supply plants with nutrients that are essential for growth.How important are fertilizers? How does their use vary across the world?FertilizersPesticides are often used to protect crop yields.There are large differences in its use across the world.Pesticides are used to protect plants from weeds, fungi, or insects. Where are they used? What is their impact?PesticidesEnergy and EnvironmentAround one-in-three children globally suffer from lead poisoning.Lead pollution is a widespread problem that receives little attention. What is the scale of the problem and how can we tackle it?Lead PollutionGlobal trends in biodiversity are mixed, but overall it's in steep declineExplore the diversity of wildlife across the planet. What are species threatened with? What can we do to prevent biodiversity loss?BiodiversityTransport is an important measure of technological progressExplore trends in transport technologies and emissions across the world.TransportAverage global temperature has increased by 1.2°C since pre-industrial timesHow are increasing greenhouse gas emissions affecting the climate? What are the implications for sea level rise; sea ice area; and other impacts?Climate ChangeEnergy10% of the world do not have access to electricity.40% do not have access to clean fuels for cooking.Access to electricity and clean cooking fuels are vital for a good standard of living and good health.Access to EnergyGlobal energy production has grown 2.5-fold in the past 50 years.What energy sources does the world rely on? What is this energy used for? And how does it change over time?Energy10% of global primary energy production comes from modern renewable sources.Solar, wind, hydropower, and other renewable energy sources currently account for a small share of global energy. But they’re growing quickly and can play a key role in tackling climate change.Renewable Energy84% of global primary energy comes from fossil fuels.Deaths per TWh range from 2.8 for gas to 24.6 for coal.Coal, gas and oil were key to industrialization and rising prosperity, but their large impact on health and the climate mean that we should transition away from these sources of energy.Fossil FuelsWasteIt is estimated that 8 million tonnes enter the world’s oceans each year.The use of plastics has many benefits – it is affordable, versatile, resistant, and can help reduce other forms of waste – especially food waste. However, when poorly managed it can pollute the environment and our oceans.Where does the plastic in our oceans come from and what can we do to reduce plastic pollution?Plastic PollutionOil spills can have a large negative impact on the environment.How often do oil spills happen? How did it change over time?Oil SpillsAir and Climate35 billion tonnes of CO₂ are emitted every year.Who is emitting greenhouse gases? Which countries and which sectors? And what needs to happen to reduce emissions?CO₂ and Greenhouse Gas Emissions6.7 million people die prematurely from air pollution each year.Our overview on both indoor and outdoor air pollution.Air Pollution4.5 million people die prematurely from outdoor air pollution every year.44% are younger than 70 years old.Outdoor air pollution is one of the world’s largest health and environmental problems.Outdoor Air Pollution2.3 million people die prematurely from indoor air pollution every year.58% are younger than 70 years old.Indoor air pollution – caused by the burning of firewood, crop waste, and dung for cooking and heating – is a major health risk of the world’s poorest.Indoor Air PollutionEmissions of ozone-depleting gases have fallen by 98%.But it will take decades for the ozone layer to recover.The emission of ozone-depleting gases are threatening the earth’s ozone layer. Global collaboration and regulation aims to reduce the emissions. Are these efforts successful?Ozone LayerWaterOne-quarter of the world do not have access to safe drinking waterExplore global access to clean water and sanitation.Clean Water and Sanitation2.1 billion people do not have access to safe drinking water.That's 26% of the world population.Clean and safe water is essential for good health.How did access change over time? Where do people lack access?Clean Water3.7 billion people do not have access to safely managed sanitation.That's 46% of the world population.Access to safe sanitation is essential for reducing deaths from infectious disease, preventing malnutrition and providing dignity. What is the global situation today and how can we make progress?SanitationGlobally we use 70% of freshwater withdrawals for agriculture; 19% in industry; and 11% in households.Freshwater resources across the world are the focus of this entry. How much water do we use? How did it change over time?Water Use and StressLand and Ecosystems26% of global greenhouse gas emissions come from food production.50% of the world's habitable land is used for agriculture.What are the environmental impacts of food production? How do we reduce the impacts of agriculture on the environment?Environmental Impacts of Food Production31% of the world’s land area is covered by forest.How are forests distributed across the world? How much do we lose to deforestation every year?Forests and Deforestation50% of the world’s habitable land is used for agricultureHow is humanity using the Earth’s land? And how can we decrease our land use so that more land is left for wildlife?Land UseOver the last decade the annual number of deaths due to natural disasters was 45,000 globally.Where and from which disasters do people die? What can we do to prevent deaths from natural disasters?Natural DisastersInnovation and Technological ChangeTransport is an important measure of technological progressExplore trends in transport technologies and emissions across the world.TransportTechnological progress has been key a key driver of improved living standards.Technology is a key driver of change that matters for all the big problems that we consider in this publication.Technological ChangeTechnology adoption has been a key driver of improved living conditions.Technology has been a leading driver of global change – disrupting the way we work, travel, and live. How quickly have different technologies been adopted across the world? Explore global and country-level data and research on technology adoption.Technology AdoptionPoverty and Economic DevelopmentPublic SectorGovernment spending has increased significantly, but with large differences across the world.What do governments spend their financial resources on?Government SpendingTax revenues account for more than 80% of total government revenue in about half of the countries in the world.And for more than 50% in almost every country.Taxes are the most important source of government revenue. Who is paying how much and how do tax systems differ?TaxationAnnual military spending amounts to 2.2% of global GDP.How much do different countries spend on their military? How did it change over time?Military SpendingHealthcare funding is essential for good health.Healthcare is key to make progress against poor health. How is it financed?Financing HealthcareFunding for education is growing across the world, but large gaps still exist.How is education financed? How much do we spend on it? What are the returns?Financing EducationPoverty and ProsperityThe world has become much more prosperous, but in some countries incomes remain very low.All of today’s rich countries were poor in the past – how do poor countries become rich?Economic GrowthEvery tenth person in the world lives on less than $1.90 per day.Two-thirds of the world population live on less than $10 per day.The international poverty line of $1.90 per day focuses on the very poorest people on the planet. How did poverty change over time and how can the world win the fight against extreme poverty?Global Extreme PovertyEconomic InequalityMany countries have high levels of income inequality.How are incomes distributed and how and why did the distribution change over time?Income InequalityIn most countries the gender pay gap has reduced, but inequalities are still large and common.What is determining the inequality in incomes, jobs, and wealth between men and women?Economic inequality by genderGlobal inequality has fallen but living conditions are still vastly unequal across the world.Living conditions around the world are vastly unequal and economic differences are a major reason for this. How is this distribution changing?Global Economic InequalityLaborAn estimated 17% of children globally work.Why and where do children work? How did child labor change over time?Child LaborMany people have to work long hours with for very low incomes.How much time do people across the world spend working? How have working hours changed over time, and what do these changes matter for people’s lives? Explore data and research on working hours.Working HoursWomen’s labor force participation is 47% globally with large differences between countries.What is determining whether women participate in the labor market? How is it changing?Women’s employmentCorruptionCorruption is a common problem in many countries and sectors.How common is corruption? What impact does it have? And what can be done to reduce it?CorruptionLiving conditions, Community and WellbeingTime is the ultimate limited resourceHow do people across the world spend their time? How do daily activities differ across countries, and how do these differences matter for people’s lives? Explore data and research on time use.Time UseThe institution of marriage is changing quicklyHow is the institution of marriage changing? What percentage of marriages end in divorce? Explore global data on marriages and divorces.Marriages and DivorcesLoneliness is common across the world.Family and friends are important for our well-being. In this article we explore data on loneliness and social connections, and review available evidence on the link between social connections and well-being.Loneliness and Social ConnectionsLife satisfaction and happiness vary widely both within and among countries.Self-reported life satisfaction differs widely between people and between countries. What explains these differences?Happiness and Life SatisfactionHealth, education and living standards have increased in recent decades, but more progress is needed.The HDI is a measure of human development that captures health, education, and income. How does the index vary around the world, and how did it change over time?Human Development Index (HDI)An estimated 17% of children globally work.Why and where do children work? How did child labor change over time?Child LaborMany people have to work long hours with for very low incomes.How much time do people across the world spend working? How have working hours changed over time, and what do these changes matter for people’s lives? Explore data and research on working hours.Working Hours56% of the world population live in urban areas.In 1960 it was 34%.The world population is moving to cities. Why is urbanization happening and what are the consequences?UrbanizationTourism is an important source of income and employment for many countries.How many travel for tourism? Where do they go? TourismCultureMisconceptions about past development means many are pessimistic about future progress.What is people’s outlook on the future – personally and for the world as a whole?Optimism and PessimismTrust levels can vary a lot between countries and groups of society.Trust is essential for community, wellbeing, and effective cooperation. How does trust vary between different societies and locations and what matters for levels of trust?TrustHousingOne-quarter of the world do not have access to safe drinking waterExplore global access to clean water and sanitation.Clean Water and Sanitation10% of the world do not have access to electricity.40% do not have access to clean fuels for cooking.Access to electricity and clean cooking fuels are vital for a good standard of living and good health.Access to Energy2.1 billion people do not have access to safe drinking water.That's 26% of the world population.Clean and safe water is essential for good health.How did access change over time? Where do people lack access?Clean WaterHomelessness is a problem in countries around the world.How many are homeless? How did homelessness change over time?Homelessness2.3 million people die prematurely from indoor air pollution every year.58% are younger than 70 years old.Indoor air pollution – caused by the burning of firewood, crop waste, and dung for cooking and heating – is a major health risk of the world’s poorest.Indoor Air PollutionMany do not have light at nightLight at night was once expensive everywhere. In some places people are still lacking light at night, while in other places light became extremely cheap.Light at Night3.7 billion people do not have access to safely managed sanitation.That's 46% of the world population.Access to safe sanitation is essential for reducing deaths from infectious disease, preventing malnutrition and providing dignity. What is the global situation today and how can we make progress?SanitationHuman rights and Democracy71% of the world population do not live in democratic countries.How democratic is the world? Why do countries become democratic? What is the impact of democratisation on people’s lives?DemocracyViolence against children in various forms has fallen, but still occurs today.How common is physical and emotional violence against children? How did it change over time?Violence against children and children’s rightsIn most countries the gender pay gap has reduced, but inequalities are still large and common.What is determining the inequality in incomes, jobs, and wealth between men and women?Economic inequality by genderCorruption is a common problem in many countries and sectors.How common is corruption? What impact does it have? And what can be done to reduce it?CorruptionHuman Rights violations are still common in many countries.From freedom of the press to racism, this entry presents an overview of quantitative measures of human rights.Human RightsViolence and WarWar and PeaceOver the last decade the annual number of battle-related deaths was 55,000 globally.Humans are capable of atrocious cruelty – the history of war makes this all too clear. How many died in war? And what are the prospects for making the world more peaceful?War and PeaceAnnual military spending amounts to 2.2% of global GDP.How much do different countries spend on their military? How did it change over time?Military SpendingOver the last decade the annual number of deaths due to terrorism was 22,000 globally.The attacks of terrorists receive a lot of attention from the media and often dominate the public discourse. How many people die from these attacks and how did it change over time?TerrorismThe world’s nuclear powers have more than 9,000 nuclear warheads.The world’s nuclear powers possess around 9,500 nuclear warheads in total. These weapons have the capacity to kill hundreds of millions of people directly, and billions due to subsequent effects on agriculture.Nuclear WeaponsPeacekeeping operations are used in conflict prevention, but are not always successful.Peacekeeping aims to help countries transition from conflict towards peace. How have peacekeeping operations and forces changed over time? See global data on peacekeeping activities. PeacekeepingViolenceViolence against children in various forms has fallen, but still occurs today.How common is physical and emotional violence against children? How did it change over time?Violence against children and children’s rightsGlobally around 415,000 people die from homicide each year.Where are people dying from homicides? How did the homicide rate change over time?HomicidesEducation and KnowledgeGlobal education has improved over recent decades, but much more progress is possible.The overview of our research on global education.Global EducationEducational outcomes14% of the world population are illiterate.Being able to read and write opens up the world of education and knowledge.When and why did more people become literate? How can progress continue?LiteracySchools often do not live up to their promise: in many schools children learn very little.How do learning outcomes differ between countries? How has the quality of education changed over time?Quality of EducationAccess to EducationMany children have very few opportunities in learning before primary education.Access to education early in life can improve outcomes for the rest of life. How does pre-primary education differ between countries and how did it change over time?Pre-Primary Education58 million children of primary school age are not in school.202 million children of secondary school age are not in school.How does access to school differ around the world? How does it between boys and girls? And how did it change over time?Primary and Secondary EducationGlobally 36% of those within 5 years of secondary education are enrolled in tertiary education.When did access to universities and tertiary education increase? How does it differ between countries?Tertiary EducationInputs to educationFunding for education is growing across the world, but large gaps still exist.How is education financed? How much do we spend on it? What are the returns?Financing EducationMany teachers across the world do not receive sufficient training.A global overview of teaching professionals. How many teachers are there? At what level do they teach? What are their qualifications?Teachers and ProfessorsMediaBook publication has been a key driver of knowledge-sharing and education.Books have been at the center of science and the arts for centuries. Their history and relevance is the focus of this entry.Books50% of the world population are not online.For many, the internet is now essential for work, finding information, and connecting with others.How did half the world get online in just one generation? And what are the challenges ahead?InternetOur World in Data is free and accessible for everyone.Help us do this work by making a donation.Donate nowAboutContactFeedbackJobsFundingHow to useDonatePrivacy policyLatest workAll chartsTwitterFacebookInstagramGitHubRSS FeedLicense: All the material produced by Our World in Data, including interactive visualizations and code, are completely open access under the Creative Commons BY license. You have the permission to use, distribute, and reproduce these in any medium, provided the source and authors are credited. All other material, including data produced by third parties and made available by Our World in Data, is subject to the license terms from the original third-party authors.Please consult our full legal disclaimer.Our World In Data is a project of the Global Change Data Lab, a registered charity in England and Wales (Charity Number 1186433).
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